Do you know the types of office leave in India and how to use them? There is a list of leave recognized by companies which you may avail in various situations. Read more below in the article
In India employees working for MNC’S, Corporates and for various medium or small companies are entitled to specific number leave per year apart from general holidays. This leave is in addition to the approved general holidays like Sundays and other National or State level holiday which companies follow according to the guidelines issued in labour laws. India’s Labour laws grants rights to every employee in India to seek leave from its employer in accordance with the leave policy of the organizations.
However, most employees remain confused about the types and nature of these leave and how to utilize them if and when they need to use leave due to certain personal, health or social problems arising during their employment tenure.
In this article we will discuss some of the common types of leave in India. Their characteristics and when and how to utilize these leave in case of need.
So, what are the most common leave types used in India?
The most common types of leave used in India are listed below
1. Sick Leave (SL)
1.1 What are Sick Leave (SL) or Medical Leaves (ML)
Sick Leave or Medical leave are availed by employees when an he or she is sick and not fit enough to be present itself on workplace due to illness or other medical reasons. Sick leave is given by companies to its sick employee for their speedy recovery and return to good health.
The approved no. of sick leave in a year by companies are paid sick leave. However additional sick leave taken above the approved number of leave are considered as unpaid leave.
1.2 How many Sick Leave in a year can be taken?
Most companies allow 12 to 15 days of paid sick leave or paid medical leave per year. However, leave may get extended beyond the approved limits set by the company on case-to-case basis in consultation with the management for legitimate sickness submitting relevant medical records. However, such excess leave may not get compensated at all or partially compensated.
1.3 Do Sick Leave carry forward to next year?
Unused sick leave in one calendar year can be carry forwarded to the next year. The numbers unused sick leave that can be accumulated from previous year differ greatly between companies however most companies do allow to accrue a maximum of 30 to 40 sick leave in year.
2. Casual Leave (CL)
2.1 What is Casual Leave (CL)?
Casual leave is taken when an employee seeks leave from workplace due to some personal reasons like travel, family functions, short break or other personal reasons etc.
2.2 How many casual leave are allowed in a year?
Most companies allow 9 to 12 casual leave per year. However, there may be a reasonable restriction on the number of casual leave one can avail in a month. Usually, not more than 1 Casual leave is allowed in one month. Most company follow the rule of 1 casual leave for every 30 to 40 full working days.
2.3 Do company allow employee to take casual leave?
Casual leave is not regarded as a “subject of right” of an employee to seek casual leave as is the case in Sick leave or Paid leave. Hence it is only approved in case of an unforeseen event or such circumstances that may occur suddenly and may require the employee to be absent at work place in order to deal with such situations.
Companies are generally strict when granting Casual leave to employees and they need to take prior permission from HR or concerned managers.
Casual leave is paid leave. However, some companies put casual leave in unpaid category while other businesses may only allow for half day pay as per their leave policy.
2.4 Does casual leave get forwarded to next year?
Casual leave does not get forwarded to next year and the unused Casual leave expires automatically with end of the year. Casual leave is not entitled for any benefits like encashment or redeeming in exchange for rewards.
3. Paid Leave
3.1 What is Paid Leave?
Paid leave are kind of leave in which the employee may take break from work place due to personal reasons but is still entitled for full day salary for that day. No salary is deducted in Paid leave. Paid leave are also known as earned leave.
3.2 How many paid leave are allowed in a year?
Most Companies leave policy have provision for 12 to 18 paid leave in a year to the maximum of 20 paid leave however it may differ for various company.
3.3 How are paid leaved calculated?
Most companies calculate paid or earned leave by adding 1.25 or 1.5 leave day per month to employees leave account on successful completion of one month of full service with the company.
3.4 Can paid leave be carry forwarded to the next year?
Unused paid leave in one calendar year do get carried over to the next year. However, most companies limit to a maximum of 30 earned leave can be accumulated and added to the employee leave account as per company leave policy. Unused paid leave can be en-cashed at the end of the year.
3.5 What is paid leave or earned leave encashment?
Leave encashment is a benefit offered by companies in which employees can encash or redeem their unused paid leave or earned leave in exchange for monetary benefits or other rewards at the end of a calendar year. However, most companies have certain limits for how may unused paid leave that can be en-cashed every year.
4. Maternity Leave
4.1 What is Maternity Leave?
Taking care of an expecting mother and its new born child is a very important event in a woman’s lifetime. To Ensure safe delivery of a newborn child and a complete recovery of mother post delivery. Woman employees are granted maternity leave by companies so as too avail the full benefits under paid maternity leave without the worry of their work in office.
Almost all of the MNC’s, Corporate, government organizations and large-scale businesses grant’s Maternity leave to its employees.
4.2 Is maternity leave a paid leave or Do company pay for maternity leave?
This leave is fully paid leave for a period of 26 weeks altogether with 8 to 12 weeks before the date of delivery and 18 to 14 weeks post delivery of child for up to 2 children. All businesses in India shall comply with the maternity leave as per the directives issued under Maternity Benefits (Amendment) Act 2017.
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5. Paternity Leave
5.1 What is Paternity Leave?
Similar, to Maternity leave the Paternity leave are granted to newly become Fathers to take care of their new born child. However, unlike Maternity Leave this leave are subject to approval from higher authority of a company as there is no government policy subjected to paternity leave. Mostly paternity leave is unpaid long leave or as otherwise stated in the companies leave policy.
5.2 Do companies offer paternity leave in India?
Owing to largely western influence recently the pace for male employees seeking paternity leave have increased manifold in India. So, companies in India, have now started to approve paternity leave for their male employees with certain reasonable limitations. However, it is best advised to read through your companies leave policies and terms and conditions thoroughly before seeking paternity leave in order to avoid any financial loss.
Most companies do approve 15 days to 8 weeks of unpaid but job secured paternity leave post the delivery of the new born child. In, India employees of the central government agencies do get 15 days paid paternity leave.
6. Sabbatical Leaves
6.1 What is Sabbatical Leave?
Sabbatical means taking break from work. An employee may decide to go for short break or vacation due to work related stress or exertion. One may also take sabbatical Leave for upskilling, academic growth, learning new skills sets or for vacation and recreational activities. Most senior long term employees do take sabbatical in order to take time off from work and enjoy quality time with friends and family and relax both physically and mentally.
6.2 Who are offered sabbatical leaves? How long are sabbatical leave?
Many organisations have specific guidelines and rules for granting sabbatical Leave to their employees. Such leave is generally offered by companies to managerial level employees who have been associated with the company for at least 5 years or more.
Most Companies do offer a 2 to 4 weeks of paid sabbatical leave to its eligible employees.
Although as with most long-term leave application it is subjected to approval from higher authorities in accordance with companies leave policies and with written prior intimation to the company’s management in official capacity.
6.3 Are sabbatical leave a fully paid leave?
Sabbatical leave is a paid leave with full day or half day salary depending on the company’s leave policies along with other benefits. However, some companies may choose to only pay a proportion of salary to its employee on sabbatical leave while they may be other extraordinary rewards or benefits in that regard.
7. Leave Without Pay (LWP)
What is a Leave Without Pay (LWP)?
Leave Without Pay (LWP) are unpaid leave wherein an employee seeks for a scheduled leave from work though management in advance after all his paid leave has been exhausted for the year. In case, of valid reasons for leave the employer may approve the leave under Leave without Pay (LWP), wherein no salary will be paid for the number of days the employee remains absent at work.
No Action is taken from the Management as the Leave are approved. The maximum number of LWP allowed in companies is between 60 to 90 days or as per merits of an individual application submitted by the employee.
8. Loss of Pay (LOP)
What is Loss of Pay (LOP)?
Similarly, Loss of Pay Leave are enforced upon by the company when an employee goes on an unscheduled leave and is absent at work without informing or intimating the higher management this is considered as an unpaid leave or (LOP) Loss of Pay leave. This despite the fact that he or she may have unused balance paid leave in their account for the year.
In such a case of absentee or unscheduled leave from work the company is be entitled for NO salary to be paid for that particular day or days as per the companies leave policy.
Taking such unscheduled leave frequently from work may attract strict disciplinary actions against the erring employees from the management of the company which may lead to termination of service or other penal actions.
9. Compensatory Off (COMP-OFF) Leave
What is Compensatory Off (COMP-OFF) Leave
Compensatory Leave or popularly known as COMP-OFF are leave granted to those employees of the company who have worked on a scheduled day-off or on holiday or when the business is closed or worked overtime hours under companies’ direction due to irregular circumstances.
The additional working hours are calculated on hourly basis and once its accrued to the limits of a full day working hours then the employee is eligible for compensatory leave. Eligible employees are then entitled for a compensatory paid leave on any working days of the same month.
Above are some of the common types of leaves in India that employees can avail in companies in addition to the above are some other types of leave like like Marriage leave, Bereavement leave, Half Pay leave, Quarantine leave, study leave etc. however most companies do not list them separately and should be clubbed with other recognised form of leave like paid leave or unpaid leave.
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